Citing e-journals still follow the conventions used for citing print journals. You must include all of the components below:
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Et al (always shown in italics) is Latin for "and others". This indicates that there are more than the six authors shown in the citation example above. Formerly, the convention was to use et al if there were more than three authors. This has now changed. Et al is used after
In Harvard Style, you can only use et al in the text - all authors are shown in the list of references. Vancouver Style permits the use of et al in the list of references as well, if there are more than six authors, as shown in the example above.
Your lecturers and tutors may be used to the old convention of et al being used for more than three authors. Please refer them to this guide or WHSL in case of dispute.
A DOI is a unique ID number that publishers are using increasingly to identify electronic articles (as opposed to e-journals which have an ISSN [International Standard Serial Number]). So the DOI identifies the unique article; the ISSN identifies the unique journal.
Examples of an e-journal citations with a DOI:
1. Strachan, M.W., Price, J.F. & Frier, B.M. 2008. Diabetes, cognitive impairment, and dementia. BMJ 336(7634):6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39386.664016.BE [Accessed 10.01.11]
2. Strachan, M.W., Price, J.F. & Frier, B.M. 2008. Diabetes, cognitive impairment, and dementia. BMJ336 (7634):6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39386.664016.BE
Note: If there is a DOI, you do not need to give the URL. If there is no DOI, the URL must be given.
Important: Even if you use a DOI, you still have to cite the entire reference plus the DOI.
A DOI will never change - it is a permanent link to an electronic article or document.
To find a document using a DOI:
This will allow the reader to click through directly to your source from your list of references.
You will notice from these examples that using a DOI is neater than using a URL in an e-journal citation. You should therefore always try to use the DOI whenever possible.