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WHSL Academic Staff Guide at the Faculty of Health Sciences: Citations

Useful information about WHSL and its services and Faculty of Health Sciences for academic staff members

Citation Styles

Official styles used by the Faculty of Health Sciences are Vancouver and Harvard. The print Faculty of Health Sciences Style Guide for Theses, Dissertations and Research Reports is available at WHSL, and is under revision. The following LibGuides replace Chapter 2 in the Style Guide.

Citation (Reference) Management and Tutorials

WHSL only supports EndNote as an e-citation manager and a bibliography creation tool. Please use the tutorials below. You may however like to use any of the free citation managers below as well. 

End Note is sold as part of a licensed product by CNS (Computer & Network Services), and is loaded onto your own pc. Contact Greg Sulej (Tel 011 717-1684).  Look out for training notices that appear from time to time on Wits Clips, or contact WHSL staff.


Other Tutorials


A DOI is a unique ID number that publishers are using increasingly to identify electronic articles (as opposed to e-journals which have an ISSN [International Standard Serial Number]). So the DOI identifies the unique article; the ISSN identifies the unique journal.

Example of an e-journal citation with a DOI:

Strachan, Mark W.J., Price, Jacqueline F. & Frier, Brian M. 2008. Diabetes, cognitive impairment, and dementia. BMJ  336(7634):6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39386.664016.BE [Accessed 10.01.11]

Note: If there is a DOI, you do not need to give the URL. If there is no DOI, the URL must be given

Important: Even if you use a DOI, you still have to cite the entire reference plus the DOI

Resolving a DOI

A DOI will never change - it is a permanent link to an electronic article or document.

To find a document using a DOI:

  • Copy the DOI of the article you want to open, eg. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70504-7
  • Go to
  • Enter the entire DOI citation in the text box provided, then click on Go
  • This is called "resolving a DOI"

For example, if you are publishing electronically, you can also cite the reference as:

This will allow the reader to click through directly to your source from your list of references.